Allogeneic HCT after primary induction failure beneficial in leukemia

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Immediate allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) after primary induction failure (PIF) offers long-term survival benefits for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Study findings showed a disease-free and overall survival rate at five and 10 years of 25.2 and 18.7 percent and 29.8 and 21.6 percent, respectively. Disease relapse occurred in 48.8 percent of patients within 10 years. Unfavorable prognosis was associated with adverse molecular risk factors, poor performance status, and long diagnosis-to-HCT intervals. The data suggests starting donor search at AML diagnosis and immediate allogeneic HCT in refractory patients when a donor is available. The study was conducted by a team from the University of Freiburg in Germany and was published in the Blood Cancer Journal in December 2023.

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