Swedish study indicates decline of neutralizing antibodies to mpox virus during the first month after vaccination

New research presented at ECCMID 2024 in Barcelona shows that in men who receive two doses of mpox vaccine intradermally, their antibody levels to the virus decline rapidly if they haven’t received a previous smallpox vaccine. Previous smallpox vaccination results in higher neutralizing antibodies after the first MVA-BN dose. Booster vaccination may be needed long-term for these individuals. An outbreak of mpox has emerged globally, mainly among MSM. The study in Sweden used real-world data to assess neutralizing antibodies following vaccination. Results indicate a need for booster doses for long-term immunity and inform public health policy. Ongoing data collection will inform future decisions on vaccination strategies.

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