Age- and sex-stratified normal values for circulatory and ventilatory power during ramp exercise derived from a healthy Japanese population

doi: 10.1007/s00380-023-02258-5.

Online ahead of print.


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Kohei Ashikaga et al.

Heart Vessels.



Circulatory power (CP) and ventilatory power (VP), obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX), have been suggested to be excellent prognostic markers for heart failure. However, the normal values of these parameters in healthy Japanese populations remain unknown; thus, we aimed to investigate these values in such a population. A total of 391 healthy Japanese participants, 20-78 years of age, underwent CPX with a cycle ergometer with ramp protocols. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate, oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2) at peak exercise, and the slope of minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]E) versus carbon dioxide ([Formula: see text]CO2) ([Formula: see text]E vs. [Formula: see text]CO2 slope) were measured. CP was calculated by multiplying the peak [Formula: see text]O2 and SBP values, and VP was calculated by dividing the peak SBP value by the [Formula: see text]E versus [Formula: see text]CO2 slope. For males and females, the average CP values were 6119 ± 1280 (mean ± standard deviation) and 4775 ± 914 mmHg·mL/min/kg, respectively (p < 0.001). The average VP values for males and females were 8.0 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.3 mmHg (p < 0.001). CP decreased with age in both sexes. VP increased with age in females, with no significant change in males. We calculated the normal values for CP and VP in a healthy Japanese population. The results can contribute to the evaluation of patients’ CPX results as a reference.


Cardiac power; Cardiopulmonary exercise test; Circulatory power; Standard values; Ventilatory power.


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