A phase II randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 versus S-1 plus cisplatin for completely resected pathological stage II/IIIA non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer. 2018 Oct;124:255-259
Authors: Okamoto T, Yano T, Shimokawa M, Takeo S, Yamazaki K, Sugio K, Takenoyama M, Nagashima A, Tsukamoto S, Hamatake M, Yokoyama H, Ueda H, Motohiro A, Tagawa T, Shoji F, Kometani T, Saito G, Fukuyama Y, Toyokawa G, Osoegawa A, Emi Y, Maehara Y, Kyushu University Lung Surgery Study Group (KLSS) Japan
OBJECTIVES: Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is the standard postoperative adjuvant treatment for pathological stage II/III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Oral S-1 therapy has good efficacy and relatively low toxicity for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. We investigated whether long-term S-1 monotherapy is also useful as an adjuvant therapy after surgery in patients with NSCLC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a phase II randomized open-label multi-institutional study in patients with pathological stage II/IIIA NSCLC (7th TNM classification) who underwent complete resection from 2009 to 2013. The primary endpoint, the 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate, was evaluated using the Bayesian method. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to two arms: oral S-1 monotherapy (S-1 arm) and S-1 plus cisplatin combination therapy followed by S-1 (S-1 plus cisplatin arm) both for a total of 1 year.
RESULTS: A total of 70 and 71 patients were enrolled in S-1 arm and S-1 plus cisplatin arm, respectively. The 2-year DFS rates were 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.63) and 61% (95% CI, 0.48-0.70) for S-1 arm and S-1 plus cisplatin arm, respectively. Both arms met the primary endpoint. Neither DFS nor OS was significantly different between the arms (log-rank test: P = 0.1695 and P = 0.8684, respectively). The main G3/4 adverse events were loss of appetite and anemia (S-1 vs. S-1 plus cisplatin: 4.3% vs. 11.6% and 0% vs. 5.8%, respectively). The treatment completion rate did not differ between the two arms (S-1 vs. S-1 plus cisplatin: 45.7%, 95% CI, 41.9-66.3% vs. 43.5% 95% CI, 44.0-68.4%).
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 was a feasible and promising treatment for patients with completely resected NSCLC, regardless of cisplatin addition. S-1 monotherapy should be investigated further, based on its low toxicity and practical convenience.
PMID: 30268470 [PubMed – in process]