A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study of neurodegenerative and small vessel disease, and clinical cognitive trajectories in non demented patients with transient ischemic attack: the PREVENT study.
BMC Geriatr. 2018 Jul 16;18(1):163
Authors: Tariq S, d’Esterre CD, Sajobi TT, Smith EE, Longman RS, Frayne R, Coutts SB, Forkert ND, Barber PA
BACKGROUND: Late-life cognitive decline, caused by progressive neuronal loss leading to brain atrophy years before symptoms are detected, is expected to double in Canada over the next two decades. Cognitive impairment in late life is attributed to vascular and lifestyle related risk factors in mid-life in a substantial proportion of cases (50%), thereby providing an opportunity for effective prevention of cognitive decline if incipient disease is detected earlier. Patients presenting with transient ischemic attack (TIA) commonly display some degree of cognitive impairment and are at a 4-fold increased risk of dementia. In the Predementia Neuroimaging of Transient Ischemic Attack (PREVENT) study, we will address what disease processes (i.e., Alzheimer’s vs. vascular disease) lead to neurodegeneration, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline, and whether imaging measurements of brain iron accumulation using quantitative susceptibility mapping predicts subsequent brain atrophy and cognitive decline.
METHODS: A total of 440 subjects will be recruited for this study with 220 healthy subjects and 220 TIA patients. Early Alzheimer’s pathology will be determined by cerebrospinal fluid samples (including tau, a marker of neuronal injury, and amyloid β1-42) and by MR measurements of iron accumulation, a marker for Alzheimer’s-related neurodegeneration. Small vessel disease will be identified by changes in white matter lesion volume. Predictors of advanced rates of cerebral and hippocampal atrophy at 1 and 3 years will include in vivo Alzheimer’s disease pathology markers, and MRI measurements of brain iron accumulation and small vessel disease. Clinical and cognitive function will be assessed annually post-baseline for a period of 5-years using a clinical questionnaire and a battery of neuropsychological tests, respectively.
DISCUSSION: The PREVENT study expects to demonstrate that TIA patients have increased early progressive rates of cerebral brain atrophy after TIA, before cognitive decline can be clinically detected. By developing and optimizing high-level machine learning models based on clinical data, image-based (quantitative susceptibility mapping, regional brain, and white matter lesion volumes) features, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, PREVENT will provide a timely opportunity to identify individuals at greatest risk of late-life cognitive decline early in the course of disease, supporting future therapeutic strategies for the promotion of healthy aging.
PMID: 30012102 [PubMed – in process]