A plasma and tissue kinetic study of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and its metabolite, N4 -acetyl sulfadiazine (ACT-SDZ), was characterized in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg at 18 and 24°C. Samples were collected at predetermined time points and determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The classical one-compartmental method was used to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters. Results showed that the changing of temperature was markedly influential on the kinetics of SDZ and ACT-SDZ in plasma and tissues. When the temperature was increased from 18 to 24°C, the elimination half-life (K10_HF) of SDZ was decreased in gill, kidney, and muscle + skin, but increased in liver and plasma. The K10_HF of ACT-SDZ also had a decreased trend in gill, liver, and plasma but had comparable values in kidney and muscle + skin. The absorption half-life (K01_HF), time to peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ ) of SDZ and ACT-SDZ all exhibited declined tendencies in plasma and tissues. The apparent volume of distribution (V_F) of SDZ in plasma was increased from 0.53 to 1.48 L/kg, and the apparent systemic total body clearance (Cl_F) was increased from 0.028 to 0.060 L/h/kg. In a word, K01_HF, Tmax , and AUC0-∞ of SDZ and ACT-SDZ were decreased in plasma and tissues with the increase of temperature, whereas the V_F and Cl_F of SDZ were increased. Meanwhile, we calculated the percentage of time profile of SDZ concentration more than minimum inhibitory concentration to total time (%T > MIC) to guide clinical usage of SDZ. When the dosage interval was 24 h, the values of %T > MIC were all >90% in plasma and most tissues. Therefore, we recommend an oral dose of SDZ at 50 mg/kg once per 24 h at 18-24°C against the fish pathogens with an MIC value of ≤6.4 μg/mL.
N4-acetyl sulfadiazine; channel catfish; pharmacokinetics; sulfadiazine; temperature.