Little is known about the timing of occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) after endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke. A better understanding could optimize in-hospital surveillance time points and duration. The aim of this study was to delineate the probability of sICH over time and to identify factors associated with its timing.
Patients and methods:
We retrospectively analyzed data from the Dutch MR CLEAN trial and MR CLEAN Registry. We included adult patients who underwent EVT for an anterior circulation large vessel occlusion within 6.5 h of stroke onset. In patients with sICH (defined as ICH causing an increase of ⩾4 points on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS]), univariable and multivariable linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the timing of sICH. This was defined as the time between end of EVT and the time of first CT-scan on which ICH was seen as a proxy.
SICH occurred in 205 (6%) of 3391 included patients. Median time from end of EVT procedure to sICH detection on NCCT was 9.0 [IQR 2.9-22.5] hours, with a rapidly decreasing incidence after 24 h. None of the analyzed factors, including baseline NIHSS, intravenous alteplase treatment, and poor reperfusion at the end of the procedure were associated with the timing of sICH.
SICHs primarily occur in the first hours after EVT, and less frequently beyond 24 h. Guidelines that recommend to perform frequent neurological assessments for at least 24 h after intravenous alteplase treatment can be applied to ischemic stroke patients treated with EVT.
Ischemic stroke; endovascular therapy; surveillance time points; symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage; timing.