Intravascular, Interstitial and Intracellular Volume Changes During Short Term Deep Tissue Massage of the Calf: A Case Study

. 2022 Nov 23;13(1):73-77.

doi: 10.2478/joeb-2022-0011.

eCollection 2022 Jan.


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Leslie D Montgomery et al.

J Electr Bioimpedance.



The following case study demonstrates that the effectiveness of Deep Tissue Massage (DTM) can be monitored in real time with bioimpedance. DTM techniques are used as a medical treatment to help reduce swelling of the calves of congestive heart failure patients. Bioimpedance monitoring shows immediately how fluid is redistributed within the intravascular, interstitial and intracellular fluid compartments, and how long the redistribution lasts. Bioimpedance spectroscopy, as used in this study, is a non-invasive procedure that can be used to monitor compartment fluid volumes and changes during many fluid management procedures.


Deep tissue massage; bioimpedance; compartment volumes.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest The authors certify that there was no conflict of interest in the conduction, preparation or reporting of this work.

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