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Optimizing frequency sampling in CEST experiments



Bolik-Coulon, Nicolas;

Hansen, D Flemming;

Kay, Lewis E;

(2022)

Optimizing frequency sampling in CEST experiments.

Journal of Biomolecular NMR
, 76

pp. 167-183.

10.1007/s10858-022-00403-2.


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Access restricted to UCL open access staff until 5 October 2023.

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Abstract

For the past decade chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments have been successfully applied to study exchange processes in biomolecules involving sparsely populated, transiently formed conformers. Initial implementations focused on extensive sampling of the CEST frequency domain, requiring significant measurement times. Here we show that the lengthy sampling schemes often used are not optimal and that reduced frequency sampling schedules can be developed without a priori knowledge of the exchange parameters, that only depend on the chosen B1 field, and, to a lesser extent, on the intrinsic transverse relaxation rates of ground state spins. The reduced sampling approach described here can be used synergistically with other methods for reducing measurement times such as those that excite multiple frequencies in the CEST dimension simultaneously, or make use of non-uniform sampling of indirectly detected time domains, to further decrease measurement times. The proposed approach is validated by analysis of simulated and experimental datasets.

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