Treatment of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) remains challenging, and those affected remain with significant risks for mortality and morbidity throughout their lifetimes. The maternal-fetal environment (MFE) has been shown to affect outcomes for infants with HLHS after the Norwood procedure. The hybrid procedure, comprised of both catheterization and surgical components, is a less invasive option for initial intervention compared to the Norwood procedure. It is unknown how the MFE impacts outcomes following the hybrid procedure. This is a single-center, retrospective study of infants born with HLHS who underwent hybrid palliation from January 2009 to August 2021. Predictor variables analyzed included fetal, maternal, and postnatal factors. The primary outcome was mortality prior to Stage II palliation. We studied a 144-subject cohort. There was a statistically significant difference in mortality prior to stage II palliation in infants with prematurity, small for gestational age, and aortic atresia subtype (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p = 0.008, respectively). There was no difference in mortality associated with maternal diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking or illicit drug use, or advanced maternal age. State and national area deprivation index scores were associated with increased risk of mortality in the entire cohort, such that infants born in areas with higher deprivation had a higher incidence of mortality. Several markers of an impaired MFE, including prematurity, small for gestational age, and higher deprivation index scores, are associated with mortality following hybrid palliation. Individual maternal comorbidities were not associated with higher mortality. The MFE may be a target for prenatal counseling and future interventions to improve pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in this population.
Congenital heart disease; Fetal environment; Hybrid palliation; Hypoplastic left heart syndrome; Mortality; Single ventricle.