In recent years, the rapid increase in the global population, the challenges associated with climate change, and the emergence of new pandemics have all become major threats to food security worldwide. Consequently, innovative solutions are urgently needed to address the current challenges and enhance food sustainability. Green technologies have gained significant attention for many food applications, while the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) are reshaping different production and consumption sectors, such as food and agriculture. In this review, a general overview of green and Industry 4.0 technologies from a food perspective will be provided. Connections between green food technologies (e.g., green preservation, processing, extraction, and analysis) and Industry 4.0 enablers (e.g., artificial intelligence, big data, smart sensors, robotics, blockchain, and the Internet of Things) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be identified and explained. Green and Industry 4.0 technologies are both rapidly becoming a valuable part of meeting the SDGs. These technologies demonstrate high potential to foster ecological and digital transitions of food systems, delivering societal, economic, and environmental outcomes. A range of green technologies has already provided innovative solutions for major food system transformations, while the application of digital technologies and other Industry 4.0 technological innovations is still limited in the food sector. It is therefore expected that more green and digital solutions will be adopted in the coming years, harnessing their full potential to achieve a healthier, smarter, more sustainable and more resilient food future.
Digital transformation; Ecological shift; Food systems; Food waste; Fourth industrial revolution; Green revolution; Innovative technologies; Sustainability.