The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review for understanding the availability and limitations of artificial intelligence (AI) approaches that could automatically identify and quantify computed tomography (CT) findings in traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Systematic review, in accordance with PRISMA 2020 and SPIRIT-AI extension guidelines, with a search of 4 databases (Medline, Embase, IEEE Xplore, and Web of Science) was performed to find AI studies that automated the clinical tasks for identifying and quantifying CT findings of TBI-related abnormalities.
A total of 531 unique publications were reviewed, which resulted in 66 articles that met our inclusion criteria. The following components for identification and quantification regarding TBI were covered and automated by existing AI studies: identification of TBI-related abnormalities; classification of intracranial hemorrhage types; slice-, pixel-, and voxel-level localization of hemorrhage; measurement of midline shift; and measurement of hematoma volume. Automated identification of obliterated basal cisterns was not investigated in the existing AI studies. Most of the AI algorithms were based on deep neural networks that were trained on 2- or 3-dimensional CT imaging datasets.
We identified several important TBI-related CT findings that can be automatically identified and quantified with AI. A combination of these techniques may provide useful tools to enhance reproducibility of TBI identification and quantification by supporting radiologists and clinicians in their TBI assessments and reducing subjective human factors.