Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Korean Congenital Heart Disease Patients: A Nationwide Age- and Sex-Matched Case-Control Study


Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a known risk factor for acquired cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, available evidence on CHD is limited mostly to Western populations. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of vascular events and all-cause mortality in Korean patients with CHD and to further corroborate CHD as a predictor of vascular events and all-cause mortality.

Materials and methods:

The claims data of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) were retrospectively reviewed. Information regarding diagnostic codes, comorbidities, medical services, income level, and residential area was also collected. Outcomes of interest included stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause mortality, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).


We included 232203 patients with CHD and 3024633 individuals without CHD as a control group through age- and sex-matched 1:10 random sampling. The prevalences of hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and atrial fibrillation were significantly higher in the CHD group, which had a more than two-fold higher incidence of vascular events and all-cause mortality, than in the group without CHD. Multivariable models demonstrated that CHD was a significant risk factor for stroke, MI, all-cause mortality, and MACE.


In conclusion, this nationwide study demonstrates that Korean patients with CHD have a high incidence of comorbidities, vascular events, and mortality. CHD has been established as an important predictor of cardiovascular events. Further studies are warranted to identify high-risk patients with CHD and related factors to prevent vascular events.


Congenital heart disease; Korean nationwide study; all-cause mortality; vascular events.

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