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DailyMed – ALOGLIPTIN tablet, film coated


Alogliptin tablets have been studied as monotherapy and in combination with metformin, a sulfonylurea, a thiazolidinedione (either alone or in combination with metformin or a sulfonylurea) and insulin (either alone or in combination with metformin).

A total of 14,053 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized in 11 double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of alogliptin tablets on glycemic control. The racial distribution of patients exposed to study medication was 70% Caucasian, 17% Asian, 6% Black and 7% other racial groups. The ethnic distribution was 30% Hispanic. Patients had an overall mean age of 57 years (range 21 to 91 years).

In patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with alogliptin tablets produced clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements in hemoglobin A1c (A1C) compared to placebo. As is typical for trials of agents to treat type 2 diabetes, the mean reduction in A1C with alogliptin tablets appears to be related to the degree of A1C elevation at baseline.

Alogliptin tablets had similar changes from baseline in serum lipids compared to placebo.

14.1 Patients with Inadequate Glycemic Control on Diet and Exercise

A total of 1768 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in three double-blind studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of alogliptin tablets in patients with inadequate glycemic control on diet and exercise. All three studies had a four week, single-blind, placebo run-in period followed by a 26 week randomized treatment period. Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 26 week treatment periods received glycemic rescue therapy.

In a 26 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 329 patients (mean baseline A1C = 8%) were randomized to receive alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg, alogliptin tablets 25 mg or placebo once daily. Treatment with alogliptin tablets 25 mg resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) compared to placebo at Week 26 (Table 3). A total of 8% of patients receiving alogliptin tablets 25 mg and 30% of those receiving placebo required glycemic rescue therapy.

Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age or baseline body mass index (BMI).

The mean change in body weight with alogliptin tablets was similar to placebo.

In a 26-week, double-blind, active-controlled study, a total of 655 patients (mean baseline A1C = 8.8%) were randomized to receive alogliptin tablets 25 mg alone, pioglitazone 30 mg alone, alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg with pioglitazone 30 mg or alogliptin tablets 25 mg with pioglitazone 30 mg once daily. Coadministration of alogliptin tablets 25 mg with pioglitazone 30 mg resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and FPG compared to alogliptin tablets 25 mg alone and to pioglitazone 30 mg alone (Table 4). A total of 3% of patients receiving alogliptin tablets 25 mg coadministered with pioglitazone 30 mg, 11% of those receiving alogliptin tablets 25 mg alone and 6% of those receiving pioglitazone 30 mg alone required glycemic rescue.

Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age or baseline BMI.

The mean increase in body weight was similar between pioglitazone alone and alogliptin tablets when coadministered with pioglitazone.

In a 26 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 784 patients inadequately controlled on diet and exercise alone (mean baseline A1C = 8.4%) were randomized to one of seven treatment groups: placebo; metformin HCl 500 mg or metformin HCl 1000 mg twice daily; alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg twice daily; alogliptin tablets 25 mg daily; or alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg in combination with metformin HCl 500 mg or metformin HCl 1000 mg twice daily. Both coadministration treatment arms (alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg + metformin HCl 500 mg and alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg + metformin HCl 1000 mg) resulted in statistically significant improvements in A1C and FPG when compared with their respective individual alogliptin and metformin component regimens (Table 5). Coadministration treatment arms demonstrated improvements in two hour postprandial glucose (PPG) compared to alogliptin tablets alone or metformin alone (Table 5). A total of 12.3% of patients receiving alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg + metformin HCl 500 mg, 2.6% of patients receiving alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg + metformin HCl 1000 mg, 17.3% of patients receiving alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg, 22.9% of patients receiving metformin HCl 500 mg, 10.8% of patients receiving metformin HCl 1000 mg and 38.7% of patients receiving placebo required glycemic rescue.

Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, race or baseline BMI. The mean decrease in body weight was similar between metformin alone and alogliptin tablets when coadministered with metformin.

14.2 Combination Therapy

Add-On Therapy to Metformin

A total of 2081 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in two 26 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of alogliptin tablets as add-on therapy to metformin. In both studies, patients were inadequately controlled on metformin at a dose of at least 1500 mg per day or at the maximum tolerated dose. All patients entered a four week, single-blind placebo run-in period prior to randomization. Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 26 week treatment periods received glycemic rescue therapy.

In the first 26 week, placebo-controlled study, a total of 527 patients already on metformin (mean baseline A1C = 8%) were randomized to receive alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg, alogliptin tablets 25 mg or placebo. Patients were maintained on a stable dose of metformin (median dose = 1700 mg) during the treatment period. Alogliptin tablets 25 mg in combination with metformin resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and FPG at Week 26, when compared to placebo (Table 6). A total of 8% of patients receiving alogliptin tablets 25 mg and 24% of patients receiving placebo required glycemic rescue.

Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, baseline BMI or baseline metformin dose.

The mean decrease in body weight was similar between alogliptin tablets and placebo when given in combination with metformin.

In the second 26 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 1554 patients already on metformin (mean baseline A1C = 8.5%) were randomized to one of 12 double-blind treatment groups: placebo; 12.5 mg or 25 mg of alogliptin tablets alone; 15 mg, 30 mg or 45 mg of pioglitazone alone; or 12.5 mg or 25 mg of alogliptin tablets in combination with 15 mg, 30 mg or 45 mg of pioglitazone. Patients were maintained on a stable dose of metformin (median dose = 1700 mg) during the treatment period. Coadministration of alogliptin tablets and pioglitazone provided statistically significant improvements in A1C and FPG compared to placebo, to alogliptin tablets alone or to pioglitazone alone when added to background metformin therapy (Table 7, Figure 3). In addition, improvements from baseline A1C were comparable between alogliptin tablets alone and pioglitazone alone (15 mg, 30 mg and 45 mg) at Week 26. A total of 4%, 5% or 2% of patients receiving alogliptin tablets 25 mg with 15 mg, 30 mg or 45 mg pioglitazone, 33% of patients receiving placebo, 13% of patients receiving alogliptin tablets 25 mg and 10%, 15% or 9% of patients receiving pioglitazone 15 mg, 30 mg or 45 mg alone required glycemic rescue.

Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age or baseline BMI.

The mean increase in body weight was similar between pioglitazone alone and alogliptin tablets when coadministered with pioglitazone.

Figure 3. Change from Baseline in A1C at Week 26 with Alogliptin Tablets and Pioglitazone Alone and Alogliptin Tablets in Combination with Pioglitazone When Added to Metformin

Add-On Therapy to a Thiazolidinedione

In a 26 week, placebo-controlled study, a total of 493 patients inadequately controlled on a thiazolidinedione alone or in combination with metformin or a sulfonylurea (10 mg) (mean baseline A1C = 8%) were randomized to receive alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg, alogliptin tablets 25 mg or placebo. Patients were maintained on a stable dose of pioglitazone (median dose = 30 mg) during the treatment period; those who were also previously treated on metformin (median dose = 2000 mg) or sulfonylurea (median dose = 10 mg) prior to randomization were maintained on the combination therapy during the treatment period. All patients entered into a four week, single-blind placebo run-in period prior to randomization. Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 26 week treatment period received glycemic rescue therapy.

The addition of alogliptin tablets 25 mg once daily to pioglitazone therapy resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and FPG at Week 26, compared to placebo (Table 8). A total of 9% of patients who were receiving alogliptin tablets 25 mg and 12% of patients receiving placebo required glycemic rescue.

Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, baseline BMI or baseline pioglitazone dose.

Clinically meaningful reductions in A1C were observed with alogliptin tablets compared to placebo regardless of whether subjects were receiving concomitant metformin or sulfonylurea (-0.2% placebo versus -0.9% alogliptin tablets) therapy or pioglitazone alone (0% placebo versus -0.52% alogliptin tablets).

The mean increase in body weight was similar between alogliptin tablets and placebo when given in combination with pioglitazone.

Add-On Therapy to Insulin

In a 26 week, placebo-controlled study, a total of 390 patients inadequately controlled on insulin alone (42%) or in combination with metformin (58%) (mean baseline A1C = 9.3%) were randomized to receive alogliptin tablets 12.5 mg, alogliptin tablets 25 mg or placebo. Patients were maintained on their insulin regimen (median dose = 55 IU) upon randomization and those previously treated with insulin in combination with metformin (median dose = 1700 mg) prior to randomization continued on the combination regimen during the treatment period. Patients entered the trial on short-, intermediate- or long-acting (basal) insulin or premixed insulin. Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 26 week treatment period received glycemic rescue therapy.

The addition of alogliptin tablets 25 mg once daily to insulin therapy resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and FPG at Week 26, when compared to placebo (Table 11). A total of 20% of patients receiving alogliptin tablets 25 mg and 40% of those receiving placebo required glycemic rescue.

Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, baseline BMI or baseline insulin dose. Clinically meaningful reductions in A1C were observed with alogliptin tablets compared to placebo regardless of whether subjects were receiving concomitant metformin and insulin (-0.2% placebo versus -0.8% alogliptin tablets) therapy or insulin alone (0.1% placebo versus -0.7% alogliptin tablets).

The mean increase in body weight was similar between alogliptin tablets and placebo when given in combination with insulin.

14.3 Cardiovascular Safety Trial

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcomes trial (EXAMINE) was conducted to evaluate the cardiovascular risk of alogliptin tablets. The trial compared the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) between alogliptin tablets (N=2701) and placebo (N=2679) when added to standard of care therapies for diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASCVD). The trial was event driven and patients were followed until a sufficient number of primary outcome events accrued.

Eligible patients were adults with type 2 diabetes who had inadequate glycemic control at baseline (e.g., HbA1c >6.5%) and had been hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome event (e.g., acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina requiring hospitalization) 15 to 90 days prior to randomization. The dose of alogliptin tablets was based on estimated renal function at baseline per dosage and administration recommendations [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. The average time between an acute coronary syndrome event and randomization was approximately 48 days.

The mean age of the population was 61 years. Most patients were male (68%), Caucasian (73%), and were recruited from outside of the United States (86%). Asian and Black patients contributed 20% and 4% of the total population, respectively. At the time of randomization patients had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus for approximately 9 years, 87% had a prior myocardial infarction and 14% were current smokers. Hypertension (83%) and renal impairment (27% with an eGFR ≤60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were prevalent co-morbid conditions. Use of medications to treat diabetes (e.g., metformin 73%, sulfonylurea 54%, insulin 41%), and ASCVD (e.g., statin 94%, aspirin 93%, renin-angiotensin system blocker 88%, beta-blocker 87%) was similar between patients randomized to alogliptin tablets and placebo at baseline. During the trial, medications to treat diabetes and ASCVD could be adjusted to ensure care for these conditions adhered to standard of care recommendations set by local practice guidelines.

The primary endpoint in EXAMINE was the time to first occurrence of a MACE defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke. The study was designed to exclude a pre-specified risk margin of 1.3 for the hazard ratio of MACE. The median exposure to study drug was 526 days and 95% of the patients were followed to study completion or death.

Table 12 shows the study results for the primary MACE composite endpoint and the contribution of each component to the primary MACE endpoint. The upper bound of the confidence interval was 1.16 and excluded a risk margin larger than 1.3.

The Kaplan-Meier based cumulative event probability is presented in Figure 4 for the time to first occurrence of the primary MACE composite endpoint by treatment arm. The curves for placebo and alogliptin tablets overlap throughout the duration of the study. The observed incidence of MACE was highest within the first 60 days after randomization in both treatment arms (14.8 MACE per 100 PY), decreased from day 60 to the end of the first year (8.4 per 100 PY) and was lowest after one year of follow-up (5.2 per 100 PY).

The rate of all cause death was similar between treatment arms with 153 (3.6 per 100 PY) recorded among patients randomized to alogliptin tablets and 173 (4.1 per 100 PY) among patients randomized to placebo. A total of 112 deaths (2.9 per 100 PY) among patients on alogliptin tablets and 130 among patients on placebo (3.5 per 100 PY) were adjudicated as cardiovascular deaths.



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