Advances in methods to analyse cardiolipin and their clinical applications

Bautista, Javier S;

Falabella, Micol;

Flannery, Padraig J;

Hanna, Michael G;

Heales, Simon JR;

Pope, Simon AS;

Pitceathly, Robert DS;


Advances in methods to analyse cardiolipin and their clinical applications.

TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry

, Article 116808. 10.1016/j.trac.2022.116808.

(In press).

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Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondria-exclusive phospholipid, primarily localised within the inner mitochondrial membrane, that plays an essential role in mitochondrial architecture and function. Aberrant CL content, structure, and localisation have all been linked to impaired mitochondrial activity and are observed in the pathophysiology of cancer and neurological, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders. The detection, quantification, and localisation of CL species is a valuable tool to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning several human disorders. CL is measured using liquid chromatography, usually combined with mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry imaging, shotgun lipidomics, fluorometry, and radiolabelling. This review summarises available methods to analyse CL, with a particular focus on modern mass spectrometry, and evaluates their advantages and limitations. We provide guidance aimed at selecting the most appropriate technique, or combination of techniques, when analysing CL in different model systems, and highlight the clinical contexts in which measuring CL is relevant.

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