The Nature-Based Solutions Case-Based System: A hybrid expert system

. 2022 Dec 15;324:116413.

doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.116413.

Epub 2022 Oct 7.


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Shahryar Sarabi et al.

J Environ Manage.



Deriving knowledge and learning from past experiences is essential for the successful adoption of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) as novel integrative solutions that involve many uncertainties. Past experiences in implementing NBS have been collected in a number of repositories; however, it is a major challenge to derive knowledge from the huge amount of information provided by these repositories. This calls for information systems that can facilitate the knowledge extraction process. This paper introduces the NBS Case-Based System (NBS-CBS), an expert system that uses a hybrid architecture to derive information and recommendations from an NBS experience repository. The NBS-CBS combines a ‘black-box’ artificial neural networks model with a ‘white-box’ case-based reasoning model to deliver an intelligent, adaptive, and explainable system. Experts have tested this system to assess its functionality and accuracy. Accordingly, the NBS-CBS appears to provide inspirational recommendations and information for the NBS planning and design process.


Artificial intelligence; Case-based reasoning; Expert system; Knowledge extraction; NBS; Nature-based solutions.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of competing interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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