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Peripheral and respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with CHD: systematic review and meta-analysis


Patients with CHD are less active if compared with controls and have limited functional capacity, related to muscle weakness and fatigue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the peripheral and respiratory muscle strength of children and adolescents with CHD with systematic review and meta-analysis. The review included observational and randomised control trial studies which evaluated peripheral and respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with CHD under 18 years old. The peripheral muscle strength was evaluated through dynamometry and respiratory muscle strength through manovacuometry. In studies that compared patients with CHD and respective control groups, it was possible to perform a meta-analysis. A total of 5634 articles met the criteria of eligibility, 15 were included in the systematic review, and 4 were included in the meta-analysis. Twelve studies assessed peripheral muscle strength with a reduction in patients with CHD. In the meta-analysis, patients with CHD had lower muscle strength than controls (-34.07 nm; 95% CI, -67.46 to -0.68; I2 47%; p for heterogeneity = 0.05), and the meta-analysis of the handgrip muscle strength showed no significant difference between patients with CHD and controls (0.08 nm; 95% CI, -6.39 to 6.55; I2 98%; p for heterogeneity <0.00001). The meta-analysis in the present study showed lower limb muscle strength in patients with CHD in comparison to controls. In contrast, no difference was found regarding hand grip strength. Also, the review showed lower respiratory muscle strength in patients with CHD, yet no meta-analysis was possible to perform.


Keywords:

Adolescent; Child; Congenital; Heart defects; Meta-analysis; Muscle strength; Review.



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