The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of spinosin: A mini review


doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.938395.

eCollection 2022.


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Xiaolan Kuang et al.

Front Pharmacol.



Spinosin, a natural flavone-C-glycoside that is mainly isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa. It exerts the effects to ameliorate the neurological disorders, such as hypnosis effects, improvement of cognitive function, sedation effects, and anxiolytic effects, as well as anti-melanogenic effect, cardioprotective effects, and anti-cancer activity. However, the insufficient basic research, unclear mechanisms, and poor bioavailability may limit the prospects of spinosin in clinical utilization. In this review, we comprehensively summarized the latest information on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and NMR characteristic of spinosin, to evaluate its potential therapeutic for clinical application, hoping to provide some rational perspective for the innovative agent development and usage of spinosin in future.


Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa; pharmacokinetics; pharmacology; spinosin; toxicity.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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