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The future of Cardiothoracic surgery in Artificial intelligence


Humans’ great and quick technological breakthroughs in the previous decade have undoubtedly influenced how surgical procedures are executed in the operating room. AI is becoming incredibly influential for surgical decision-making to help surgeons make better projections about the implications of surgical operations by considering different sources of data such as patient health conditions, disease natural history, patient values, and finance. Although the application of artificial intelligence in healthcare settings is rapidly increasing, its mainstream application in clinical practice remains limited. The use of machine learning algorithms in thoracic surgery is extensive, including different clinical stages. By leveraging techniques such as machine learning, computer vision, and robotics, AI may play a key role in diagnostic augmentation, operative management, pre-and post-surgical patient management, and upholding safety standards. AI, particularly in complex surgical procedures such as cardiothoracic surgery, may be a significant help to surgeons in executing more intricate surgeries with greater success, fewer complications, and ensuring patient safety, while also providing resources for robust research and better dissemination of knowledge. In this paper, we present an overview of AI applications in thoracic surgery and its related components, including contemporary projects and technology that use AI in cardiothoracic surgery and general care. We also discussed the future of AI and how high-tech operating rooms will use human-machine collaboration to improve performance and patient safety, as well as its future directions and limitations. It is vital for the surgeons to keep themselves acquainted with the latest technological advancement in AI order to grasp this technology and easily integrate it into clinical practice when it becomes accessible. This review is a great addition to literature, keeping practicing and aspiring surgeons up to date on the most recent advances in AI and cardiothoracic surgery.



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