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The Fraction Size Sensitivity of Late Genitourinary Toxicity: Analysis of alpha/beta (α/β) ratios in the CHHiP Trial



Brand, Douglas H;

Brüningk, Sarah C;

Wilkins, Anna;

Naismith, Olivia;

Gao, Annie;

Syndikus, Isabel;

Dearnaley, David P;

CHHiP Trial Management Group; + view all

Brand, Douglas H;

Brüningk, Sarah C;

Wilkins, Anna;

Naismith, Olivia;

Gao, Annie;

Syndikus, Isabel;

Dearnaley, David P;

van As, Nicholas;

Hall, Emma;

Gulliford, Sarah;

Tree, Alison C;

CHHiP Trial Management Group;

– view fewer

(2022)

The Fraction Size Sensitivity of Late Genitourinary Toxicity: Analysis of alpha/beta (α/β) ratios in the CHHiP Trial.

International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics


10.1016/j.ijrobp.2022.08.030.

(In press).

[thumbnail of 1-s2.0-S0360301622031339-main.pdf]


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1-s2.0-S0360301622031339-main.pdf
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Abstract

PURPOSE: Moderately hypofractionated external beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer is now standard-of-care. Normal tissue toxicity responses to fraction size alteration are non-linear: the linear-quadratic model is a widely-used framework accounting for this, through the α/β ratio. Few α/β ratio estimates exist for human late genitourinary endpoints; here we provide estimates derived from a hypofractionation trial. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The XXXXXX trial randomised 3216 men with localised prostate cancer 1:1:1 between conventionally fractionated IMRT (74Gy/37 fractions (Fr)) and two moderately hypofractionated regimens (60Gy/20Fr & 57Gy/19Fr). Radiotherapy plan and suitable follow-up assessment was available for 2206 men. Three prospectively assessed clinician-reported toxicity scales were amalgamated for common genitourinary endpoints: Dysuria, Haematuria, Incontinence, Reduced flow/Stricture, Urine Frequency. Per endpoint, only patients with baseline zero toxicity were included. Three models for endpoint grade ≥1 (G1+) and G2+ toxicity were fitted: Lyman Kutcher-Burman (LKB) without equivalent dose in 2Gy/Fr (EQD2) correction [LKB-NoEQD2]; LKB with EQD2-correction [LKB-EQD2]; LKB-EQD2 with dose-modifying-factor (DMF) inclusion [LKB-EQD2-DMF]. DMFs were: age, diabetes, hypertension, pelvic surgery, prior transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), overall treatment time and acute genitourinary toxicity (G2+). Bootstrapping generated 95% confidence intervals and unbiased performance estimates. Models were compared by likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: The LKB-EQD2 model significantly improved performance over LKB-NoEQD2 for just three endpoints: Dysuria G1+ (α/β=2.0 Gy, 95%CI 1.2-3.2Gy), Haematuria G1+ (α/β=0.9 Gy, 95%CI 0.1-2.2Gy) and Haematuria G2+ (α/β=0.6Gy, 95%CI 0.1-1.7Gy). For these three endpoints, further incorporation of two DMFs improved on LKB-EQD2: acute genitourinary toxicity and Prior TURP (Haematuria G1+ only), but α/β ratio estimates remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of EQD2-correction significantly improved model fitting for Dysuria and Haematuria endpoints, where fitted α/β ratio estimates were low: 0.6-2 Gy. This suggests therapeutic gain for clinician-reported GU toxicity, through hypofractionation, might be lower than expected by typical late α/β ratio assumptions of 3-5 Gy.

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