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The diagnostic potential and barriers of microbiome based therapeutics




doi: 10.1515/dx-2022-0052.


Online ahead of print.

Affiliations

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Animesh Acharjee et al.


Diagnosis (Berl).


.

Abstract

High throughput technological innovations in the past decade have accelerated research into the trillions of commensal microbes in the gut. The ‘omics’ technologies used for microbiome analysis are constantly evolving, and large-scale datasets are being produced. Despite of the fact that much of the research is still in its early stages, specific microbial signatures have been associated with the promotion of cancer, as well as other diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, neurogenerative diareses etc. It has been also reported that the diversity of the gut microbiome influences the safety and efficacy of medicines. The availability and declining sequencing costs has rendered the employment of RNA-based diagnostics more common in the microbiome field necessitating improved data-analytical techniques so as to fully exploit all the resulting rich biological datasets, while accounting for their unique characteristics, such as their compositional nature as well their heterogeneity and sparsity. As a result, the gut microbiome is increasingly being demonstrating as an important component of personalised medicine since it not only plays a role in inter-individual variability in health and disease, but it also represents a potentially modifiable entity or feature that may be addressed by treatments in a personalised way. In this context, machine learning and artificial intelligence-based methods may be able to unveil new insights into biomedical analyses through the generation of models that may be used to predict category labels, and continuous values. Furthermore, diagnostic aspects will add value in the identification of the non invasive markers in the critical diseases like cancer.


Keywords:

biomarker; diagnostics; machine learning; microbiota.

References

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