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Transcatheter interventions for severe tricuspid regurgitation: a literature review


The prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) increases with age, affecting 65%-85% of adults. Primary TR is caused by a congenital or acquired abnormality of the tricuspid valve apparatus (leaflets, chordae, papillary muscles, or annulus). Secondary TR is due to insufficient coaptation from dilation of tricuspid valve annulus due to the right ventricle (RV) or right atrium (RA) remodeling and increased RV pressures. Isolated TR is without increased RV pressures and is associated with atrial fibrillation. Mild TR is a benign disease. Moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation has independently been associated with increased mortality. Most of these patients are treated medically due to poor outcomes with surgical repair of isolated TR. The in-hospital mortality rate is 8.8%, and the median length of stay in hospital is 11 days resulting in higher healthcare costs. Even if the patients undergo surgical repair or replacement, available data do not show improvement in survival. With a more detailed understanding of the complex anatomy and physiology of the tricuspid valve and significant complications from untreated tricuspid valve disease, the approach to the management of TR has shifted from a conservative approach to a process of prevention and intervention. In the past decade, transcatheter tricuspid valve interventions and tricuspid annuloplasty rings have been developed, contributing to decreased mortality from surgical repair. Transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention techniques have improved survival, quality of life, and reduced heart failure rehospitalization. This review summarizes normal anatomy, types of TR, etiology and different mechanisms of TR, echocardiographic assessment of the severe TR, and highlights various percutaneous transcatheter techniques for tricuspid valve repair.



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