… Eisenhauer, A; + view all
Naturally occurring stable calcium isotope ratios are a novel biomarker of bone calcium balance in chronic kidney disease.
Dysregulated calcium homeostasis is common in chronic kidney disease and causally associated with disorders of bone mineralization. However, radiological measures and biomarkers do not allow accurate evaluation of bone calcium balance. Non-radioactive calcium isotopes, 42Ca and 44Ca, are present in our diet and sequestered into body compartments following principles of kinetic isotope fractionation. Isotopically light 42Ca is preferentially incorporated into bone, while heavier 44Ca is excreted. The ratio (44/42Caserum) increases when bone formation exceeds resorption and vice versa, reflecting bone calcium balance. We measured these calcium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry in blood, urine and feces of 42 children with chronic kidney disease and 92 receiving dialysis therapy. We compared the isotope ratios with bone biomarkers and determined total bone mineral content by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative CT expressed as age-adjusted z-scores. The 44/42Caserum ratio positively correlated with serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and alkaline phosphatases and inversely with serum parathyroid hormone and other bone resorption markers. The 44/42Caserum ratio positively correlated with age-adjusted z-scores of tibial trabecular bone mineral density and total bone mineral content measured by peripheral quantitative CT, and hip bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant and independent predictors of total bone mineral content, measured by, were the 44/42Caserum ratio and parathyroid hormone. The 44/42Caserum ratio, repeated after four weeks, highly correlated with baseline values. When adjusted for calcium-containing medications and kidney impairment, the 44/42Caserum ratio in patients receiving dialysis was 157% lower than that of age-matched children and 29% lower than levels in elderly women with osteoporosis, implying significantly lower bone mineral content. Thus, calcium isotope ratios may provide a novel, sensitive and non-invasive method of assessing bone calcium balance in chronic kidney disease.
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