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A Narrative Review of Recent Advances in Rapid Assessment of Anthocyanins in Agricultural and Food Products



Review


doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.901342.


eCollection 2022.

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Review

Muhammad Faisal Manzoor et al.


Front Nutr.


.

Abstract

Anthocyanins (ACNs) are plant polyphenols that have received increased attention recently mainly due to their potential health benefits and applications as functional food ingredients. This has also created an interest in the development and validation of several non-destructive techniques of ACN assessments in several food samples. Non-destructive and conventional techniques play an important role in the assessment of ACNs in agricultural and food products. Although conventional methods appear to be more accurate and specific in their analysis, they are also associated with higher costs, the destruction of samples, time-consuming, and require specialized laboratory equipment. In this review article, we present the latest findings relating to the use of several spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence, Raman, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and near-infrared spectroscopy), hyperspectral imaging, chemometric-based machine learning, and artificial intelligence applications for assessing the ACN content in agricultural and food products. Furthermore, we also propose technical and future advancements of the established techniques with the need for further developments and technique amalgamations.


Keywords:

agricultural product; anthocyanin; chemometrics; food products; non-destructive techniques.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Figures



Figure 1

Chemometric models used in spectral imaging and spectroscopic techniques for classification and regression models.


Figure 2


Figure 2

Fluorescence spectroscopy principal acquisition mode; EEM, Excitation emission matrix; SFS, Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.


Figure 3


Figure 3

A fundamental concept of near-infrared spectroscopy.


Figure 4


Figure 4

Principal quality components of food and future advancement in non-destructive techniques with time.

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