Qishen granules (QSG), a Chinese herbal formula, has been widely used in the treatment of myocardial ischemic chronic heart failure (CHF) for many years, but its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, comprehensive metabolomics was used to investigate the underlying protective mechanisms of QSG in an isoproterenol-induced CHF rat model. A total of 14 biomarkers were identified in serum and 34 biomarkers in urine, which were mainly related to fatty acid metabolism, bile acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism, vitamin metabolism, and inflammation. Finally, 22 markers were selected for quantitative analysis of serum, urine, and fecal samples to verify the reliability of the results of untargeted metabolomics, and the results were similar to those of untargeted metabolomics. The correlation analysis showed that the targeted quantitative endogenous metabolites and CHF-related indexes were closely related. QSG might alleviate myocardial inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and amino acid metabolism disorder in CHF by regulating the level of endogenous metabolites. This study revealed QSG could regulate potential biomarkers and correlated metabolic pathway, which provided support for the further application of QSG.
Qishen granules; chronic heart failure; mass spectrometry; metabolomics.