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Ellagic Acid: A Dietary-Derived Phenolic Compound for Drug Discovery in Mild Cognitive Impairment



Review


doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.925855.


eCollection 2022.

Affiliations

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Review

Wenjun Wang et al.


Front Aging Neurosci.


.

Abstract

Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, is detected in free form or linked to polyols or sugars, constituting hydrolyzable tannins or ellagitannins in distinct fruits, nuts, and herbs. Today, a considerable number of botanicals and enriched foods containing EA are commercially available as nutraceuticals and used to prevent mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to the excellent neuroprotective capacity of EA. Here, this study aims to provide an overview of the physicochemical properties, source, and pharmacokinetics of EA and to emphasize the importance and mechanisms of EA in the prevention and management of MCI. To date, preclinical studies of EA and its derivatives in various cell lines and animal models have advanced the idea of dietary EA as a feasible agent capable of specifically targeting and improving MCI. The molecular mechanisms of EA and its derivatives to prevent or reduce MCI are mainly through reducing neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, neuronal apoptosis, synaptic dysfunction and loss, and defective mitochondrial functions. Nevertheless, well-designed and correctly large randomized controlled trials in the human population need to be performed to reinforce the scientific facticity of the beneficial effects of EA against MCI. Synchronously, the mechanism of EA against MCI is least provided cynosure and expects more attention from the emerging research community.


Keywords:

ellagic acid (EA); mechanism; mild cognitive impairment (MCI); pharmacokinetics; physicochemical properties; sources.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Figures



FIGURE 1

Various sources of ellagic acid (EA). (A) The plant origins of EA. The pictures are from the website: https://www.gbif.org/; http://www.iplant.cn/frps. (B) EA as a major constituent of different fruits, nuts, and herbs.


FIGURE 2


FIGURE 2

Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion processes of ellagic acid (EA) in the body.


FIGURE 3


FIGURE 3

Salient pharmacological features of ellagic acid (EA) elicited by involving anti-oxidant effects, modulation of synthesis of anti-inflammatory molecules, inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and preservation of mitochondrial functions.


FIGURE 4


FIGURE 4

The main mechanism network of anti-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) effect of ellagic acid (EA).

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