Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are vesicles with a lipid bilayer membrane on the outside, which are widely found in various body fluids and contain biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, lipids and proteins on the inside. EVs were once thought to be vesicles for the removal of waste materials, but are now known to be involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes in many diseases. This study examines the advantage of EVs and the challenges associated with their application. A more rational use of the advantageous properties of EVs such as composition specificity, specific targeting, circulatory stability, active penetration of biological barriers, high efficient drug delivery vehicles and anticancer vaccines, oxidative phosphorylation activity and enzymatic activity, and the resolution of shortcomings such as isolation and purification methods, storage conditions and pharmacokinetics and biodistribution patterns during drug delivery will facilitate the clinical application of EVs.
biological feature; biomarker; clinical application; drug delivery; exosomes.
Copyright © 2022 Zeng, Qiu, Jiang, Shen, Yao, He, Li, Fu and Liu.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.