Incorporating artificial intelligence in medical diagnosis: A case for an invisible and (un)disruptive approach

doi: 10.1111/jep.13730.

Online ahead of print.


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Matt Sibbald et al.

J Eval Clin Pract.



As big data becomes more publicly accessible, artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly available and applicable to problems around clinical decision-making. Yet the adoption of AI technology in healthcare lags well behind other industries. The gap between what technology could do, and what technology is actually being used for is rapidly widening. While many solutions are proposed to address this gap, clinician resistance to the adoption of AI remains high. To aid with change, we propose facilitating clinician decisions through technology by seamlessly weaving what we call ‘invisible AI’ into existing clinician workflows, rather than sequencing new steps into clinical processes. We explore evidence from the change management and human factors literature to conceptualize a new approach to AI implementation in health organizations. We discuss challenges and provide recommendations for organizations to employ this strategy.


artificial intelligence; change management; clinical decision-making; human factors; machine learning; resistance to change; technology development.



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