Header
Header
Article

Endoscopic nasobiliary drainage-based saline-injection ultrasound: an imaging technique for remnant stone detection after retrograde cholangiopancreatography | BMC Gastroenterology


In dealing with CBD stones, especially those involving lower CBD segments, ERCP treatment has increasingly been accepted by the majority of doctors and patients [14,15,16]. There is substantial evidence that endoscopic stone extraction may reduce the risk of postoperative complications associated with traditional open surgery, lessening surgical trauma, shortening hospitalization times, and relieving pain through long-term biliary drainage tube placement [4,5,6]. However, if some remnants are retained during less than full endoscopic CBD visualization, acute suppurative cholangitis and acute pancreatitis may rapidly ensue. Consequently, the search for an effective diagnostic method that helps avoid such scenarios has important clinical ramifications [17, 18]. For this study, we used ENBD access to our advantage in formulating a diagnostic application. ENBD is a treatment method applicable to acute suppurative obstructive cholangitis, bile duct obstruction caused by primary or secondary tumors, bile duct obstruction caused by hepatolithiasis, prevent incarceration of common bile duct stones, biliary pancreatitis, benign stricture of bile duct, traumatic or iatrogenic bile fistula, and sclerosing cholangitis [19]. ENBD also been a widely used therapeutic tool in ERCP procedures to relieve obstruction.

MRCP and EUS are also widely applied in CBD stone diagnosis, and various kinds of clinical guidelines have confirmed their superior positions [20]. However, they are currently not fit for ERCP residual CBD stone detection. For ERCP residual stone detection, the examination method should not only meet the requirement of exact CBD stone detection, but should also meet the requirements of economical, simple procedures causing less suffering of patients during multiple examinations in a short period of time. Thus, the high cost of MRCP and increase of suffering by EUS constitute limitations of these methods in application.

An occlusion cholangiogram is the acknowledged gold standard for the diagnosis of bile duct stones. However, various studies have documented that this method may at times lead to misdiagnosis. In instances of pneumobilia or lithotripsy during ERCP, the chances of misdiagnosis are significantly increased. Intestinal inflation/dilation in the course of ERCP and pneumobilia due to retrograde biliary migration of intestinal gas after EST may impact the diagnostic performance. In addition, small stones that persist after lithotripsy are often missed by cholangiography. In this study, reference to previous literature, residual stones larger than 5 mm are considered to be meaningful, [21] because the debris generated after lithotripsy operation may increase detection rate and cause statistical error in each examination method (Additional file 1: TableS1). According to the result, the sensitivity of occlusion cholangiogram (via ENBD) for detecting post-ERCP remnant stones was only 50.9%, and the false-negative rate was 49.1%.It is worth noting that in this study, among the 271 patients without stones found by intraoperative occlusion cholangiogram, 23 patients were suspected to have residual stones after ENBD saline injection ultrasound examination, and 22 patients were removed stones during the secondary ERCP or surgical interventions. It was proved that the residual stones of these 22 patients were missed by intraoperative occlusion cholangiogram and found by ENBD saline injection ultrasound. In addition, intraoperative occlusion cholangiogram has its own limitations. For example, CT imaging of pigment stones is not ideal, owing to inherent image-forming principles, and gas interference may lead diagnosis astray. Furthermore, fever, biliary tract infection, and radiation injury related to procedural injection of contrast are typically disadvantageous, whereas saline-injection US effectively averts such problems. Moreover, in pregnant women and other special-needs patients who are ill-suited for occlusion cholangiogram, saline-injection US constitutes a viable alternative option.

Routine US studies are not very useful for diagnosing choledocholithiasis or assessing a normal CBD. Particularly in the lower CBD segment, interference by the intestinal tract and field gas creates a suboptimal environment. In addition, the sphincter of Oddi is functionally altered after EST, allowing retrograde biliary migration of intestinal gas. The limited space between the ENBD cannulas and the CBD wall hinders ductal visualization, so any small stones harbored within cannot be detected. In this study, the sensitivity of routine US imaging for identifying residual stones was 23.5%, the rate of complete CBD imaging was only 28.8%, and the imaging rate of lower-segment CBD was 45%. Thus, we used a novel approach of injecting saline via ENBD tubes (under US guidance) to disengage the ENBD/CBD interface, creating more space and expelling any biliary tract gas, thereby overcoming the related drawbacks.In this study, among the 289 patients without stones found by routine ultrasound, 38 patients were suspected to have residual stones after ENBD saline injection ultrasound examination, and 34 patients were removed stones during the secondary ERCP or surgical interventions,which indicating that the residual stones of these 34 patients were missed by routine ultrasound and found by ENBD injection ultrasound. US examinations have the advantage of being real-time and dynamic in nature. In our study, patients were regularly placed in left lateral positions, making it easier for retrograde CBD gas to be discharged into the intestinal tract and preventing its return. At the same time, injection of saline served to eliminate gas in the duodenum and enhance delineation of the lower CBD. The results of this study show that, the length and diameter of the common bile duct of ENBD saline injection ultrasound are higher than that of routine ultrasound, which proves that water injection ultrasound can make up for the shortcoming of poor imaging effect of bile duct during routine ultrasound.

ENBD-based saline-injection US is simple, convenient, and inexpensive, and may also significantly improve the quality of US examinations and accuracy of CBD stone detection, thus aiding in therapeutic guidance during follow-up. Under this novel approach, allergy to iodinated contrast and radiation exposure during ENBD biliary angiography is no longer an issue, and patients find its cost (which undercuts that of trans-ENBD cholangiography) more acceptable. The sensitivity, specificity and estimated accuracy of ENBD-base saline injection US for the detection of residual CBD stones were 90.1%, 98.4% and 96.4%, respectively. These figures are significantly better than those achieved by occlusion cholangiography or conventional US, as were CBD length and diameter imaging outcomes. Thus, this strategy seems to significantly improve the accuracy of detecting residual CBD stones.

There were certain disadvantages to our novel imaging technique, first that the injection of bubbles clearly has imaging consequences,which may cause false positive results. Bile should therefore be withdrawn from the ENBD tubes before initiating saline injections. US examinations are also limited to one plane, so maximum lengths are restricted accordingly. In fact, the observed lengths outside the given plane are generally longer. Dynamic observations are thus preferable. In addition, in patients with demonstrably poor US effects, as in obese subjects, ENBD-based saline-injection US is of limited utility and may increase the possibility of false negative cases.. Among all patients in this study, only three (1%) experienced discomfort upon injection, which abated once the injection was stopped. This quite possibly reflected transient scanner probe compression, which briefly elevates biliary tract pressure. All other patients were entirely asymptomatic. Furthermore, choledocholithiasis is a temporary problem. If patients get new stones during the interval period of different investigations, the imaging results will be different and cause experimental errors. In clinical situations, different examinations cannot be carried out at the same time, so this kind of error cannot be completely avoided. In this study, all of our examinations were completed within 3 days after the ERCP procedure so as to avoid the error caused by an excessively long interval time between different examinations.Finally, the use of ENBD has some drawbacks since it is uncomfortable to the patient and requires special care to avoid dislodgement,which may reduce the universality of application of ENBD-based saline-injection US.



Source link

Back to top button