Responsive materials architected in space and time


doi: 10.1038/s41578-022-00450-z.

Online ahead of print.


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Xiaoxing Xia et al.

Nat Rev Mater.



Rationally designed architected materials have attained previously untapped territories in materials property space. The properties and behaviours of architected materials need not be stagnant after fabrication; they can be encoded with a temporal degree of freedom such that they evolve over time. In this Review, we describe the variety of materials architected in both space and time, and their responses to various stimuli, including mechanical actuation, changes in temperature and chemical environment, and variations in electromagnetic fields. We highlight the additive manufacturing methods that can precisely prescribe complex geometries and local inhomogeneities to make such responsiveness possible. We discuss the emergent physics phenomena observed in architected materials that are analogous to those in classical materials, such as the formation and behaviour of defects, phase transformations and topologically protected properties. Finally, we offer a perspective on the future of architected materials that have a degree of intelligence through mechanical logic and artificial neural networks.


Materials science; Mechanical engineering.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interestsThe authors declare no competing interests.

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