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Respiratory viruses among pediatric inpatients with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Jinan, China, 2016-2019


The viral etiologies responsible for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) are a major cause of pediatric hospitalization, and some develop severe diseases requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of viruses and risk factors associated with PICU admission among patients hospitalized for ALRI. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected to detect human rhinovirus (HRV), influenza A and B viruses (IAV, IBV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and adenovirus (ADV) by PCR. Of the 5590 pediatric inpatients enrolled, respiratory viral infection occurred in 2102 (37.60%) patients, including 1846 (33.02%) single and 256 (4.58%) mixed viral infections. Among the nasopharyngeal swabs from pediatric inpatients, HRV accounted for the highest detection rate (16.48%), followed by PIV (8.35%), RSV (7.41%), ADV (4.63%), IAV (3.51%), and IBV (2.08%). The positive rate of viral tests decreased with increasing age and was higher in males (39.29%) than females (34.67%). The prevalence of viral infection was the highest in winter (41.57%) and lowest in autumn (31.78%). Each virus had a seasonal pattern, with peaks occurring in months of their epidemic seasons. RSV infection and the presence of comorbidities including congenital tracheal stenosis, congenital heart disease, metabolic disorder, immunodeficiency, renal disease, gastrointestinal disease and neurological disorder might be associated with the need for PICU admission. Therefore, this study provides useful information for the prevention and control of virus-related respiratory diseases and the early identification of and the intervention in severe cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Keywords:

acute lower respiratory tract infections; pediatric inpatient; pediatric intensive care unit; polymerase chain reaction; respiratory virus.



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