14.1 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
In the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT), the effect of atorvastatin calcium on fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease was assessed in 10,305 hypertensive patients 40 to 80 years of age (mean of 63 years), without a previous myocardial infarction and with TC levels ≤ 251 mg/dL (6.5 mmol/L). Additionally, all patients had at least 3 of the following cardiovascular risk factors: male gender (81.1%), age > 55 years (84.5%), smoking (33.2%), diabetes (24.3%), history of CHD in a first-degree relative (26%), TC:HDL > 6 (14.3%), peripheral vascular disease (5.1%), left ventricular hypertrophy (14.4%), prior cerebrovascular event (9.8%), specific ECG abnormality (14.3%), proteinuria/albuminuria (62.4%). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were treated with anti-hypertensive therapy (Goal BP < 140/90 mm Hg for non-diabetic patients; <130/80 mm Hg for diabetic patients) and allocated to either atorvastatin calcium 10 mg daily (n=5,168) or placebo (n=5,137), using a covariate adaptive method which took into account the distribution of nine baseline characteristics of patients already enrolled and minimized the imbalance of those characteristics across the groups. Patients were followed for a median duration of 3.3 years.
The effect of 10 mg/day of atorvastatin calcium on lipid levels was similar to that seen in previous clinical trials.
Atorvastatin calcium significantly reduced the rate of coronary events [either fatal coronary heart disease (46 events in the placebo group vs. 40 events in the atorvastatin calcium group) or non-fatal MI (108 events in the placebo group vs. 60 events in the atorvastatin calcium group)] with a relative risk reduction of 36% [(based on incidences of 1.9% for atorvastatin calcium vs. 3.0% for placebo), p=0.0005 (see Figure 1)]. The risk reduction was consistent regardless of age, smoking status, obesity, or presence of renal dysfunction. The effect of atorvastatin calcium was seen regardless of baseline LDL levels. Due to the small number of events, results for women were inconclusive.
Atorvastatin calcium also significantly decreased the relative risk for revascularization procedures by 42% (incidences of 1.4% for atorvastatin calcium and 2.5% for placebo). Although the reduction of fatal and non-fatal strokes did not reach a pre-defined significance level (p=0.01), a favorable trend was observed with a 26% relative risk reduction (incidences of 1.7% for atorvastatin calcium and 2.3% for placebo). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for death due to cardiovascular causes (p=0.51) or noncardiovascular causes (p=0.17).
In the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), the effect of atorvastatin calcium on cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints was assessed in 2,838 subjects (94% white, 68% male), ages 40 to75 with type 2 diabetes based on WHO criteria, without prior history of cardiovascular disease and with LDL ≤ 160 mg/dL and TG ≤ 600 mg/dL. In addition to diabetes, subjects had 1 or more of the following risk factors: current smoking (23%), hypertension (80%), retinopathy (30%), or microalbuminuria (9%) or macroalbuminuria (3%). No subjects on hemodialysis were enrolled in the study. In this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, subjects were randomly allocated to either atorvastatin calcium 10 mg daily (1,429) or placebo (1,411) in a 1:1 ratio and were followed for a median duration of 3.9 years. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of any of the major cardiovascular events: myocardial infarction, acute CHD death, unstable angina, coronary revascularization, or stroke. The primary analysis was the time to first occurrence of the primary endpoint.
Baseline characteristics of subjects were: mean age of 62 years, mean HbA1c 7.7%; median LDL-C 120 mg/dL; median TC 207 mg/dL; median TG 151 mg/dL; median HDL-C 52 mg/dL.
The effect of atorvastatin calcium 10 mg/day on lipid levels was similar to that seen in previous clinical trials.
Atorvastatin calcium significantly reduced the rate of major cardiovascular events (primary endpoint events) (83 events in the atorvastatin calcium group vs. 127 events in the placebo group) with a relative risk reduction of 37%, HR 0.63, 95% CI (0.48, 0.83) (p=0.001) (see Figure 2). An effect of atorvastatin calcium was seen regardless of age, sex, or baseline lipid levels.
Atorvastatin calcium significantly reduced the risk of stroke by 48% (21 events in the atorvastatin calcium group vs. 39 events in the placebo group), HR 0.52, 95% CI (0.31, 0.89) (p=0.016) and reduced the risk of MI by 42% (38 events in the atorvastatin calcium group vs. 64 events in the placebo group), HR 0.58, 95.1% CI (0.39, 0.86) (p=0.007). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for angina, revascularization procedures, and acute CHD death.
There were 61 deaths in the atorvastatin calcium group vs. 82 deaths in the placebo group (HR 0.73, p=0.059).
In the Treating to New Targets Study (TNT), the effect of atorvastatin calcium 80 mg/day vs. atorvastatin calcium 10 mg/day on the reduction in cardiovascular events was assessed in 10,001 subjects (94% white, 81% male, 38% ≥ 65 years) with clinically evident coronary heart disease who had achieved a target LDL-C level < 130 mg/dL after completing an 8-week, open-label, run-in period with atorvastatin calcium 10 mg/day. Subjects were randomly assigned to either 10 mg/day or 80 mg/day of atorvastatin calcium and followed for a median duration of 4.9 years. The primary endpoint was the time-to-first occurrence of any of the following major cardiovascular events (MCVE): death due to CHD, non-fatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and fatal and non-fatal stroke. The mean LDL-C, TC, TG, non-HDL, and HDL cholesterol levels at 12 weeks were 73 mg/dL, 145 mg/dL, 128 mg/dL, 98 mg/dL, and 47 mg/dL during treatment with 80 mg of atorvastatin calcium and 99 mg/dL, 177 mg/dL, 152 mg/dL, 129 mg/dL, and 48 mg/dL during treatment with 10 mg of atorvastatin calcium.
Treatment with atorvastatin calcium 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of MCVE (434 events in the 80 mg/day group vs. 548 events in the 10 mg/day group) with a relative risk reduction of 22%, HR 0.78, 95% CI (0.69, 0.89), p=0.0002 (see Figure 3 and Table 9). The overall risk reduction was consistent regardless of age (< 65, ≥ 65) or gender.
TABLE 8. Overview of Efficacy Results in TNT
a Atorvastatin 80 mg: atorvastatin 10 mg
b Component of other secondary endpoints
* Secondary endpoints not included in primary endpoint
HR=hazard ratio; CHD=coronary heart disease; CI=confidence interval; MI=myocardial infarction; CHF=congestive heart failure; CV=cardiovascular; PVD=peripheral vascular disease; CABG=coronary artery bypass graft
Confidence intervals for the Secondary Endpoints were not adjusted for multiple comparisons
Of the events that comprised the primary efficacy endpoint, treatment with atorvastatin calcium 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of non-fatal, non-procedure related MI and fatal and non-fatal stroke, but not CHD death or resuscitated cardiac arrest (Table 8). Of the predefined secondary endpoints, treatment with atorvastatin calcium 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of coronary revascularization, angina, and hospitalization for heart failure, but not peripheral vascular disease. The reduction in the rate of CHF with hospitalization was only observed in the 8% of patients with a prior history of CHF.
There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality (Table 8). The proportions of subjects who experienced cardiovascular death, including the components of CHD death and fatal stroke, were numerically smaller in the atorvastatin calcium 80 mg group than in the atorvastatin calcium 10 mg treatment group. The proportions of subjects who experienced noncardiovascular death were numerically larger in the atorvastatin calcium 80 mg group than in the atorvastatin calcium 10 mg treatment group.
In the Incremental Decrease in Endpoints Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Study (IDEAL), treatment with atorvastatin calcium 80 mg/day was compared to treatment with simvastatin 20 mg/day to 40 mg/day in 8,888 subjects up to 80 years of age with a history of CHD to assess whether reduction in CV risk could be achieved. Patients were mainly male (81%), white (99%) with an average age of 61.7 years, and an average LDL-C of 121.5 mg/dL at randomization; 76% were on statin therapy. In this prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial with no run-in period, subjects were followed for a median duration of 4.8 years. The mean LDL-C, TC, TG, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol levels at Week 12 were 78 mg/dL, 145 mg/dL, 115 mg/dL, 45 mg/dL, and 100 mg/dL during treatment with 80 mg of atorvastatin calcium and 105 mg/dL, 179 mg/dL, 142 mg/dL, 47 mg/dL, and 132 mg/dL during treatment with 20 mg to 40 mg of simvastatin.
There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for the primary endpoint, the rate of first major coronary event (fatal CHD, non-fatal MI, and resuscitated cardiac arrest): 411 (9.3%) in the atorvastatin calcium 80 mg/day group vs. 463 (10.4%) in the simvastatin 20 mg/day to 40 mg/day group, HR 0.89, 95% CI ( 0.78, 1.01), p=0.07.
There were no significant differences between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality: 366 (8.2%) in the atorvastatin calcium 80 mg/day group vs. 374 (8.4%) in the simvastatin 20 mg/day to 40 mg/day group. The proportions of subjects who experienced CV or non-CV death were similar for the atorvastatin calcium 80 mg group and the simvastatin 20 mg to 40 mg group.
14.2 Hyperlipidemia and Mixed Dyslipidemia
Atorvastatin calcium reduces total-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apo B, and TG, and increases HDL-C in patients with hyperlipidemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia (
Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb). Therapeutic response is seen within 2 weeks, and maximum response is usually achieved within 4 weeks and maintained during chronic therapy.
Atorvastatin calcium is effective in a wide variety of patient populations with hyperlipidemia, with and without hypertriglyceridemia, in men and women, and in the elderly.
In two multicenter, placebo-controlled, dose-response studies in patients with hyperlipidemia, atorvastatin calcium given as a single dose over 6 weeks, significantly reduced total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG. (Pooled results are provided in Table 9.)
Table 9. Dose Response in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia (Adjusted Mean % Change From Baseline)
a Results are pooled from 2 dose-response studies.
In patients with
Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb hyperlipoproteinemia pooled from 24 controlled trials, the median (25th and 75th percentile) percent changes from baseline in HDL-C for atorvastatin calcium 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg were 6.4 (-1.4, 14), 8.7 (0, 17), 7.8 (0, 16), and 5.1 (-2.7, 15), respectively. Additionally, analysis of the pooled data demonstrated consistent and significant decreases in total-C, LDL-C, TG, total-C/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C.
In three multicenter, double-blind studies in patients with hyperlipidemia, atorvastatin calcium was compared to other statins. After randomization, patients were treated for 16 weeks with either atorvastatin calcium 10 mg per day or a fixed dose of the comparative agent (Table 10).
Table 10. Mean Percentage Change From Baseline at Endpoint (Double-Blind, Randomized, Active-Controlled Trials)
1 A negative value for the 95% CI for the difference between treatments favors atorvastatin calcium for all except HDL-C, for which a positive value favors atorvastatin calcium. If the range does not include 0, this indicates a statistically significant difference.
a Significantly different from lovastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤ 0.05
b Significantly different from pravastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤ 0.05
c Significantly different from simvastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤ 0.05
The impact on clinical outcomes of the differences in lipid-altering effects between treatments shown in Table 10 is not known. Table 10 does not contain data comparing the effects of atorvastatin calcium 10 mg and higher doses of lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin. The drugs compared in the studies summarized in the table are not necessarily interchangeable.