Clinical insights into management options for recurrent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk after metabolic-bariatric surgery


. 2022 Mar 9;S0939-4753(22)00121-1.

doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2022.02.019.

Online ahead of print.


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Roberta Lupoli et al.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.




Long-term clinical trials evaluating the effects of metabolic-bariatric surgery (MBS) on type 2 diabetes (T2D) demonstrate that a significant proportion of patients either fail to achieve remission or experience T2D recurrence over time. Furthermore, patients with recurrent T2D might require reinstitution of pharmacotherapy to control comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidemia). This paper reviews therapeutic options in patients with T2D relapse.

Data synthesis:

Although presently there is no recommended pharmacological strategy, the available data support GLP-1 analogues (GLP-1a) as the most suitable option to control hyperglycemia post-MBS. Beside their efficacy in lowering glycemia and body weight while preserving lean mass, GLP-1a exert cardiovascular/renal-protection and are also safe and well tolerated in surgical patients. In addition, the s.c. route of administration of these medications circumvents the problem of changes in oral drugs bioavailability following MBS. Of note, the available data refers to liraglutide and needs to be confirmed with weekly GLP-1a agents. Information regarding the impact of MBS on the pharmacokinetics of lipid lowering and anti-hypertensive drugs is scarce and inconclusive. The findings indicate that timing from intervention is particularly important because of adaptive intestinal mechanisms.


The recurrence of T2D following MBS is a clinically relevant issue. GLP-1a therapy represents the best option to improve glycemic and weight control with good tolerability. Long-term clinical trials will clarify the impact of these drugs on cardiovascular outcomes. A close monitoring of MBS patients is advised to guide drug dosage adjustments and ensure the control of cardiovascular risk factors.


Cardiovascular risk; Diabetes recurrence; GLP-1 analogues; Metabolic-bariatric surgery.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of competing interest No conflict of interest was declared.

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