Fetal Diagn Ther. 2021 Sep 16:1-6. doi: 10.1159/000519057. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is associated with microdeletions of chromosome 22q11. It is the second most common cause of congenital heart disease and is an important consideration whenever a conotruncal cardiac anomaly is identified. The availability of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is altering the practice of prenatal genetics and maternal-fetal medicine, resulting in a decline in invasive testing. Antenatal ultrasound and other biomarkers have their own limitation. NIPT was proposed to screen DGS with cell-free DNA in Taiwan. Here, we present our experience of prenatal diagnosis of DGS in our center.
METHODS: This was a retrospective study between November 1, 2019, and August 31, 2020, in Taiwan. Data were collected from 7,826 pregnant women self-referred for DGS screening with massive parallel shotgun sequencing-based NIPT. High-risk cases subsequently received amniocentesis for array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to confirm the diagnosis. Characteristics of pregnancies were documented when participants received the test. Report of NIPT was completed 2 weeks after the test. Follow-up on high-risk cases was completed by telephone interview on January 30, 2021.
RESULTS: Thirteen cases showed high risk by NIPT, and 7 cases were confirmed by aCGH. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64.57-100.00%) and 99.92% (95% CI 99.83-99.96%). The prevalence of DGS was 1 in 1,118 pregnancies. The positive predictive rate was 53.85% (95% CI 29.14-76.79%). One true positive (TP) showed US anomaly, and 5 TPs selected termination.
DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: NIPT demonstrated good performance in DGS screening. Detection of 22q11.2 deletion could be combined with routine screening to facilitate proper intervention.