Cardiol Res Pract. 2021 Sep 16;2021:6792643. doi: 10.1155/2021/6792643. eCollection 2021.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiac outpouchings encounter a series of distinct congenital or acquired entities (i.e. aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, diverticula, and herniations), whose knowledge is still poorly widespread in clinical practice. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview focusing on definition, differential diagnosis, and prognostic outcomes of cardiac outpouchings, as well as further insights on therapeutic options, in order to assist physicians in the most appropriate decision-making.
METHODS: The material reviewed was obtained by the following search engines: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Clinical Trials databases, from January 1966 until March 2021. We searched for the following keywords (in title and/or abstract): (“cardiac” OR “heart”) AND (“outpouching” OR “outpouch” OR “aneurysm” OR “pseudoaneurysm” OR “false aneurysm” OR “diverticulum” OR “herniation”). Review articles, original articles, case series, and case reports with literature review were included in our search. Data from patients with congenital or acquired cardiac outpouchings, from prenatal to geriatric age range, were investigated.
RESULTS: Out of the 378 papers initially retrieved, 165 duplicates and 84 records in languages other than English were removed. Among the 129 remaining articles, 76 were included in our research material, on the basis of the following inclusion criteria: (a) papers pertaining to the research topic; (b) peer-reviewed articles; (c) using standardized diagnostic criteria; and (d) reporting raw prevalence data. Location, morphologic features, wall motion abnormalities, and tissue characterization were found to have a significant impact in recognition and differential diagnosis of cardiac outpouchings as well as to play a significant role in defining their natural history and prognostic outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Careful recognition of cardiac outpouchings remains a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. Due to a broad cluster of distinctive and heterogeneous entities, their knowledge and timely recognition play a pivotal role in order to provide the most appropriate clinical management and therapeutic approach.