Coronary artery ectasia in a child after arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries and suspected multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19: a case report

Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2021 May 12;5(5):ytab143. doi: 10.1093/ehjcr/ytab143. eCollection 2021 May.


BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with features resembling Kawasaki disease has been reported in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

CASE SUMMARY: We report the rare case of a 22 months old boy with a history of operated simple transposition of the great arteries (TGA), who developed features of MIS-C likely to be associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection and involving the coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac catheterization showed long-distance ectasia of both coronary arteries after their origins and an origin stenosis of the right coronary artery with a perfusion defect. The patient was treated with oral anticoagulation together with antiplatelet therapy and remains under careful monitoring.

DISCUSSION: This rare case demonstrates that also patients with TGA after the arterial switch operation (ASO) can develop coronary artery dilatation in association with MIS-C. The most interesting finding in this patient was that the origins of the reimplanted coronary arteries were not dilated. We speculate that scar tissue formation in the area of coronary artery transfer after ASO has prevented proximal coronary artery dilation.

PMID:34013161 | PMC:PMC8117429 | DOI:10.1093/ehjcr/ytab143

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