J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021 May 10:dkab143. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkab143. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: To assess plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of cefazolin and metronidazole in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and non-obese patients undergoing intra-abdominal surgery.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen obese and 15 non-obese patients received an IV short infusion of 2 g cefazolin and 0.5 g metronidazole for perioperative prophylaxis. Plasma and microdialysate from subcutaneous tissue were sampled until 8 h after dosing. Drug concentrations were determined by HPLC-UV. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated non-compartmentally.
RESULTS: In obese patients (BMI 39.5-69.3 kg/m2) compared with non-obese patients (BMI 18.7-29.8 kg/m2), mean Cmax of total cefazolin in plasma was lower (115 versus 174 mg/L) and Vss was higher (19.4 versus 14.2 L). The mean differences in t½ (2.7 versus 2.4 h), CL (5.14 versus 4.63 L/h) and AUC∞ (402 versus 450 mg·h/L) were not significant. The influence of obesity on the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole was similar (Cmax 8.99 versus 14.7 mg/L, Vss 73.9 versus 51.8 L, t½ 11.9 versus 9.1 h, CL 4.62 versus 4.13 L/h, AUC∞ 116 versus 127 mg·h/L). Regarding interstitial fluid (ISF), mean concentrations of cefazolin remained >4 mg/L until 6 h in both groups, and those of metronidazole up to 8 h in the non-obese group. In obese patients, the mean ISF concentrations of metronidazole were between 3 and 3.5 mg/L throughout the measuring interval.
CONCLUSIONS: During the time of surgery, cefazolin concentrations in plasma and ISF of subcutaneous tissue were lower in obese patients, but not clinically relevant. Regarding metronidazole, the respective differences were higher, and may influence dosing of metronidazole for perioperative prophylaxis in obese patients.