Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for clozapine in Korean patients with schizophrenia
Transl Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Mar;29(1):33-44. doi: 10.12793/tcp.2021.29.e3. Epub 2021 Mar 10.
Clozapine has been used as a treatment of schizophrenia. Despite its large interindividual variability, few reports addressed the physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation (PBPK M&S) of clozapine in patients. This study aimed to develop a PBPK M&S of clozapine in Korean patients with schizophrenia. PBPK modeling for clozapine was constructed using a population-based PBPK platform, the SimCYP® Simulator (V19; Certara, Sheffield, UK). The PBPK model was developed by optimizing the physiological parameters of the built-in population and compound libraries in the SimCYP® Simulator. The model verification was performed with the predicted/observed ratio for pharmacokinetic parameters and visual predictive checks (VPCs) plot. Simulations were performed to predict toxicities according to dosing regimens. From published data, 230 virtual trials were simulated for each dosing regimen. The predicted/observed ratio for the area under the curve and peak plasma concentration was calculated to be from 0.78 to 1.34. The observation profiles were within the 5th and 95th percentile range with no serious model misspecification through the VPC plot. A significant impact on age and gender was found for clozapine clearance. The simulation results suggested that 150 mg twice a day and 150 mg three times a day of clozapine have toxicity concerns. In conclusion, a PBPK model was developed and reasonable parameters were made from the data of Korean patients with schizophrenia. The provided model might be used to predict the pharmacokinetics of clozapine and assist dose adjustment in clinical settings.