Outcomes of pregnancy and delivery in women with cardiac disease compared to matched healthy controls
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021 Mar 7:1-7. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2021.1895739. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: We compared pregnancy and delivery outcomes between women with cardiac disease versus matched healthy controls. The primary outcome was the frequency of unplanned cesarean delivery.
METHODS: In this single-center retrospective case-control study, women with cardiac disease were identified and matched (1:2 ratio, according to maternal age, parity, number of prior cesareans, gestational age, delivery onset and fetal presentation) to healthy controls who delivered within the same year. Outcomes were frequency of unplanned cesarean delivery, complications during pregnancy and postpartum course, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and length of hospitalization.
RESULTS: One hundred and twelve women with cardiac disease (exposed group, 225 deliveries) were identified and matched with 450 healthy women (controls, 2003-2014). The cohort comprised of 103 women (204 deliveries) with acquired heart disease (valve disease [n = 69], arrhythmia [n = 31], 3 with cardiomyopathy and peri/myocarditis, and 9 women (21 deliveries) with congenital heart disease. The frequency of unplanned cesarean was 14 (7.9%) for the exposed group as compared with 12 (3.4%) in controls with an odds ratio of 2.33 (95% CI = 1.0.2-5.32, p = .045). This difference was accentuated in a sub-group of women with severe cardiac disease (15% vs. 4.2% in matched control group, p = .028). Seventy-one (31.6%) exposed women exhibited obstetric and cardiovascular complications during pregnancy as compared with 65 (14.4%) controls, p < .001. Twenty-five (13.9%) exposed women experienced postpartum complications versus 26 (7.5%) in the control group (p = .019). Maternal ICU admission occurred in 13 (7.3%) of the exposed group as compared with only 2 (0.6%) in controls (p < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: Women with a background cardiac condition, particularly those with severe disease, are at a higher risk for an unplanned cesarean delivery and other peripartum complications as compared with matched healthy controls.