Immunohistochemistry of Kidney a-SMA, Collagen 1, and Collagen 3, in A Novel Mouse Model of Reno-cardiac Syndrome
Bio Protoc. 2020 Sep 20;10(18):e3751. doi: 10.21769/BioProtoc.3751. eCollection 2020 Sep 20.
Cardiorenal syndrome defines a synergistic pathology of the heart and kidneys where failure of one organ causes failure in the other. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality caused by this syndrome, is 20 fold higher in the end stage renal disease (ESRD) population compared to the population as a whole thus necessitating the need for improved therapeutic strategies to combat reno-cardiac pathologies. Murine in vivo models play a major role in such research permitting precise genetic modification thus reducing miscellany, however presently there is no steadfast model of reno-cardiac syndrome in the most common genetically modified mouse strain, the C57BL/6 mouse. In this study we have modified an established model of chronic renal disease using adenine diet and extended the associated pathology achieving chronic renal failure and consequent reno-cardiac syndrome in the C57BL/6 mouse. Eight week-old male C57BL/6 mice were acclimatized for 7 days before administration of a 0.15% adenine diet or control diet for 20 weeks after which the experiment was terminated and blood, urine and organs were collected and analyzed biochemically and by immunohistochemistry. Administration of 0.15% adenine diet caused progressive renal failure resulting in a reno-cardiac syndrome confirmed by a significantly increased heart to body weight ratio (P < 0.0001). Blood biochemistry showed that adenine fed mice had significantly increased serum creatinine, urea (P < 0.0001), and a significantly reduced glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.05), while immunohistochemistry of the kidneys for α-SMA, collagen 1 and collagen 3 showed severe fibrosis. We present a novel regimen of adenine diet which induces both chronic kidney disease and reno-cardiac syndrome in the C57BL/6 mouse strain. The non-surgical nature of this model makes it highly reproducible compared to other models currently available.