Artificial Intelligence for Personalized Medicine in Thyroid Cancer: Current Status and Future Perspectives
Front Oncol. 2021 Feb 9;10:604051. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2020.604051. eCollection 2020.
Thyroid cancers (TC) have increasingly been detected following advances in diagnostic methods. Risk stratification guided by refined information becomes a crucial step toward the goal of personalized medicine. The diagnosis of TC mainly relies on imaging analysis, but visual examination may not reveal much information and not enable comprehensive analysis. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a technology used to extract and quantify key image information by simulating complex human functions. This latent, precise information contributes to stratify TC on the distinct risk and drives tailored management to transit from the surface (population-based) to a point (individual-based). In this review, we started with several challenges regarding personalized care in TC, for example, inconsistent rating ability of ultrasound physicians, uncertainty in cytopathological diagnosis, difficulty in discriminating follicular neoplasms, and inaccurate prognostication. We then analyzed and summarized the advances of AI to extract and analyze morphological, textural, and molecular features to reveal the ground truth of TC. Consequently, their combination with AI technology will make individual medical strategies possible.