Update on methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate formulations for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.


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Update on methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate formulations for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2021 Feb 21;:

Authors: Pheils J, Ehret MJ

Abstract
PURPOSE: Current literature on the safety and efficacy of intermediate- and long-acting formulations of methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is evaluated.
SUMMARY: Methylphenidate has been an established treatment for ADHD, but due to its relatively short half-life, numerous intermediate- and long-acting products have been developed. While these extended-release products provide efficacy similar to that of immediate-acting products, the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects can vary. Intermediate-acting methylphenidate products have effects that can last as long as 8 hours, but clinically patients have still required twice-daily dosing. Long-acting products have helped to address these challenges, with recently developed products including controlled-release and bimodal-delivery systems and a patch formulation. Many of these products can be opened and sprinkled on applesauce for ease of administration.
CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the various formulations of methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate is crucial for appropriate medication selection for control of ADHD symptoms. Knowledge of differences between release mechanisms and the pharmacokinetic properties are essential for appropriate use of these products.

PMID: 33611383 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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