Population pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo simulation for dosage optimization of fosfomycin in the treatment of osteoarticular infections in patients without renal dysfunction
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Feb 22:AAC.02038-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02038-20. Online ahead of print.
Background: Fosfomycin is gaining interest in the treatment of complex osteoarticular infections (OI) due to MDR pathogens.Objective: The aims were to conduct population pharmacokinetics of fosfomycin in a cohort of OI patients receiving 16g/daily by intermittent (II) or continuous infusion (CI), and to carry out Monte Carlo simulations for dosage optimization in the treatment of these infections.Methods: Patients underwent blood sampling on day 5 of therapy (2-3 serial samples). Population pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to define the probability of target attainment (PTA) of 70% T>MIC, and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) against common OI pathogens with dosages of 8, 12, 16, and 20g/day administered by II, extended-infusion (EI) or CI.Results: Forty-eight patients were recruited. A two-compartment open model with infusion input and first-order elimination was developed. Estimated creatinine clearance (CLCR) was included as covariate in the final model. Monte Carlo simulations showed that optimal PTAs and CFRs (≥90%) may be achieved in three different classes of renal function by administering a daily dosage of: 2g q6h by II against S. aureus, E. coli, ESBL-producing E. Coli and MRSA; 8g by CI against CoNS, K. pneumoniae and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae; 12g by CI against P. aeruginosa, and 16g by CI against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae Conclusion: Our study provides a strong rationale for considering fosfomycin dosages of 8-16 g daily by CI in several clinical scenarios for OI patients. Feasibility of administration by CI in an elastomeric pump makes fosfomycin a candidate for OPAT programs.