Emerging Therapeutic Applications for Fumarates
Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2021 Feb 19:S0165-6147(21)00007-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2021.01.004. Online ahead of print.
Fumarates are successfully used for the treatment of psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Their antioxidative, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective properties make fumarates attractive therapeutic candidates for other pathologies. The exact working mechanisms of fumarates are, however, not fully understood. Further elucidation of the mechanisms is required if these drugs are to be successfully repurposed for other diseases. Towards this, administration route, dosage, and treatment timing, frequency, and duration are important parameters to consider and optimize with clinical paradigms in mind. Here, we summarize the rapidly expanding literature on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fumarates, including a discussion on two recently FDA-approved fumarates VumerityTM and BafiertamTM. We review emerging applications of fumarates, focusing on neurological and cardiovascular diseases.