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Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Perforator Flap: An Anatomical Study of the Correlation of the Superficial and the Deep Branches of the Artery and Evaluation of Perfusion from the Deep Branch to the Sartorius Muscle and the Iliac Bone



imageBackground:
Harvesting the sartorius muscle and the iliac bone with a superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) perforator flap can be a challenging procedure. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical topology of the deep branch of the SCIA in fresh cadavers, which has not been reported in detail.
Methods:
Twenty groin regions from 10 fresh cadavers were dissected. The characteristics and landmarks of the SCIA system, including branches to the sartorius muscle and the iliac bone, were examined. Perfusion of the sartorius muscle and the iliac bone by means of the deep branch of the SCIA was evaluated with indocyanine green angiography and computed tomographic angiography.
Results:
The superficial and the deep branches were identifiable in all specimens. In 85 percent of the specimens, the bifurcation point could be seen within 2 cm from a fixed site: 6 cm from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine, and 3 cm caudal from that point. The deep branch in each case gave off branches to the sartorius muscle and the iliac bone. The cephalad portion of the sartorius muscle (up to 8 cm from the anterior superior iliac spine) and the superficial portion of the iliac bone (up to 1.5 cm from the iliac crest) were perfused by the deep branch of the SCIA.
Conclusions:
In all specimens, both the superficial branch and the deep branch of the SCIA were found. The deep branch was found consistently to give off perfusing branches to the sartorius muscle and the iliac bone.

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