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What causes heart disease part 62


19th January 2019

I suppose it is gratifying to see things I write very strongly supported a few days later. After telling everyone that a high cholesterol level is not a risk for stroke, out comes a study almost straight away, demonstrating that a low cholesterol level increases mortality in patients who have already had a stroke.

This was in a population – and I would highlight this fact – in a population who have high grade carotid artery stenosis. Which mean a high degree of atherosclerosis on the carotid arteries (supplying blood to the brain). The paper is called:

‘Lower cholesterol tied to increased mortality in ischaemic stroke patients with carotid artery stenosis.

Takeaway

In patients with acute, first-ever ischaemic stroke with high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and post-stroke functional dependence, lower total cholesterol level was associated with increased risk for 5-year mortality.

Why this matters:

Recent treatment guidelines of hyperlipidaemia suggest more aggressive treatment for reducing risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and ischaemic stroke.

However, these findings suggest a careful consideration of aggressive treatment of hyperlipidaemia in patients with acute, first-ever ischaemic stroke with high-grade ICA stenosis and post-stroke functional dependence.

Study design:

Study prospectively evaluated 196 patients with acute ischaemic stroke with high-grade ICA stenosis and modified Rankin Scale score ≥3.

Patients were divided into 2 groups based on total cholesterol level at admission: ≥200 or <200 mg/dL.

Patients were followed-up for 5 years after initial assessment.

Key results:

After adjusting for established clinical predictors of adverse outcomes, lower total cholesterol level (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.09-3.23; P=.023) was a significant risk factor for 5-year all-cause mortality.

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (P=.013) was significantly higher and that of atrial fibrillation (P=.011) was significantly lower in patients with high vs low total cholesterol level.

Patients with lower cholesterol level had significantly lower value of haemoglobin (P=.001), whereas glycohaemoglobin was significantly higher in patients with higher total cholesterol level (P=.001).

Funding: None.

Four most annoying words in the English language. ‘I told you so.’

Of course, this study will be dismissed out of hand. “We should still be prescribing statins to people who have had ischaemic strokes” we will be told. “Studies like this are purely observational” we will be told. “A high cholesterol level still needs to be lowered” we will be told. Nothing to see here, please move along!

I do become increasingly weary of finding evidence that directly and absolutely contradicts the cholesterol hypothesis. It never makes the slightest difference – to anything. Hopefully a few people are out there listening, whose minds are not made of reinforced concrete.

1: https://www.univadis.co.uk/viewarticle/lower-cholesterol-tied-to-increased-mortality-in-ischaemic-stroke-patients-with-carotid-artery-stenosis-651463

Lung YJ, Weng WC, Wu CL, Huang WY. Association Between Total Cholesterol and 5 year Mortality in Patients with Carotid Artery Stenosis and Poststroke Functional D ependence. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2019 Jan 11 [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.12.030. PMID: 30642665

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