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The Receptor-like Pseudokinase GHR1 Is Required for Stomatal Closure


Guard cells control the aperture of stomatal pores to balance photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake with evaporative water loss. Stomatal closure is triggered by several stimuli that initiate complex signaling networks to govern the activity of ion channels. Activation of SLOW ANION CHANNEL1 (SLAC1) is central to the process of stomatal closure and requires the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) GUARD CELL HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-RESISTANT1 (GHR1), among other signaling components. Here, based on functional analysis of nine Arabidopsis thaliana ghr1 mutant alleles identified in two independent forward-genetic ozone-sensitivity screens, we found that GHR1 is required for stomatal responses to apoplastic reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid, high CO2 concentrations, and diurnal light/dark transitions. Furthermore, we show that the amino acid residues of GHR1 involved in ATP binding are not required for stomatal closure in Arabidopsis or the activation of SLAC1 anion currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes and present supporting in silico and in vitro evidence suggesting that GHR1 is an inactive pseudokinase. Biochemical analyses suggested that GHR1-mediated activation of SLAC1 occurs via interacting proteins and that CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE3 interacts with GHR1. We propose that GHR1 acts in stomatal closure as a scaffolding component.

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