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Myocardial oxygen balance during acute normovolemic hemodilution: A novel compartmental modeling approach.


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Myocardial oxygen balance during acute normovolemic hemodilution: A novel compartmental modeling approach.

Comput Biol Med. 2018 Dec 12;105:16-26

Authors: Balasubramanian V, Li JK, O’Hara D, Kaya M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hemodilution was introduced initially as a blood conservation technique to reduce allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing surgical procedures. Although the technique has been approved by the National Institute of Health consensus panel, limits of hemodilution under anesthetic conditions have not been established as they have in animal models.
METHODS: A novel multi-compartmental modeling approach has been proposed that includes the effect of anesthesia to quantify the effect of hemodilution on myocardial oxygen balance during myocardial ischemia.
RESULTS: The results showed that isovolemic hemodilution would cause detrimental effects around a hematocrit of 15%. Even though the fall in oxygen content caused by the decrease in hemoglobin concentration was compensated by an increase in coronary blood flow induced by hypoxic vasodilation and decreased viscosity, the endocardial tissue received less oxygen compared to the epicardial regions, and this sub-endocardial ischemia eventually led to cardiac failure. Statistical analysis also showed that the type of acellular replacement fluid failed to affect the heart rate, the stroke index or the cardiac index during hemodilution, and supplemental oxygen improved the endocardial oxygen supply.
CONCLUSION: The model validates the clinical conclusions that sub-endocardial ischemia causes cardiac failure under extreme hemodilution conditions and the model can also be easily integrated into other human simulators.

PMID: 30572164 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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