EHS
EHS

Diabetes and cardiovascular risk in UK South Asians: an overview

CVD & diabetes module 2Click here to take a CPD test on this article

Diabetes affects at least 415 million people worldwide, this epidemic disproportionately affects certain ethnicities, like South Asians (SA), more than others. The risk of developing diabetes is between two to six times higher in SA when compared with white Europeans in the UK. The current estimations are that there are nearly 400,000 people with diabetes of SA heritage living in the UK, which makes them one-fifth of the total UK diabetes population. The United Kingdom Asian Diabetes Study (UKADS) showed SAs tend to have early onset of diabetes (57.0 vs. 64.8 years), for longer duration (7.8 vs. 6.3 years), with individuals of lower body mass index (BMI) (28.6 vs. 31.0 kg/m2), lower waist (101.7 vs. 105.5 cm), lower systolic blood pressure (140.1 vs. 143.9 mmHg), lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (1.3 vs. 1.5 mmol/L) but relatively higher total cholesterol (4.7 vs. 4.3 mmol/L), higher triglycerides (2.5 vs. 2.0 mmol/L) and higher glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (8.2% vs. 7.2%) when compared with white Europeans. Diabetes in SAs increases their risks for coronary heart disease (perhaps more non-fatal), diabetic renal disease and diabetic retinopathy with a significantly lower duration of diabetes. The increased prevalence of diabetes in UK SAs with increased risk of complications is multi-factorial with both usual risk factors and unknown elements contributing. The role of genetic and epigenetic factors, low foetal birth weight, lifestyle factors that include diet and less physical activity, along with low socio-economic status, cultural barriers, language barriers, fatalistic attitude and cultural ‘taboos’, are speculated but variably proven. Although there is an emerging research in some of the areas, more well-designed randomised-controlled trials are needed to study these cardiometabolic risks and devise better management strategies for diabetes in this high-risk ethnic group.

Source link

EHS
Back to top button