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Levetiracetam circulating concentrations and response in status epilepticus.

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Levetiracetam circulating concentrations and response in status epilepticus.

Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Sep 18;88:61-65

Authors: Perrenoud M, André P, Buclin T, Decosterd LA, Rossetti AO, Novy J

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous levetiracetam (LEV) is broadly used in the treatment of status epilepticus (SE). A loading dose is usually infused, aiming to reach quickly the range of plasma concentrations considered as therapeutic (12-46 mg/l). The aim of the study was to evaluate the response to LEV in SE, correlated exposure assessed by plasma concentration monitoring, as well as calculated exposure parameters.
MATERIALS & METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a SE registry, including patients since 2015 with at least one available LEV plasma level measured less than 36 h after loading. A Bayesian maximum likelihood approach based on a population pharmacokinetic model was used to estimate LEV exposure parameters. We compared plasma levels and pharmacokinetics parameter estimates between responders and nonresponders. Therapeutic response was defined as SE cessation within 24 h following LEV introduction without a need for additional antiepileptic drug (AED).
RESULTS: We included 29 patients (45 plasma levels). Variability was salient in LEV loading doses (ranging between 17 and 38 mg/kg) and monitoring practice. There was no difference in median plasma concentrations (19.5 versus 21.5 mg/l; p = 0.71), median estimated LEV exposure (25.8 versus 37.0 mg/l; p = 0.61), peak (30.4 versus 41.5 mg/l; p = 0.36), or residual levels after loading dose (14.4 versus 20.5 mg/l; p = 0.07) between responders and nonresponders.
CONCLUSIONS: Levetiracetam exposure does not seem to differ significantly between responders and nonresponders; greater exposure was not associated with better outcome. Loading doses of 30 mg/kg seem, however, appropriate to quickly reach the target exposure level. The short LEV half-life makes standardized sampling measurement necessary to obtain directly interpretable LEV levels.

PMID: 30241055 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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